Bone Marrow Transplant Surgery

The bone marrow produces blood cells. Stem cells are immature cells found in the bone marrow that make up all the different blood cells. Stem cells, which are the source of all structures in the human body and have rapid self-renewing properties, offer hope in the treatment of many diseases, including some types of cancer.


Bone marrow transplant is the process of administering stem cells from the patient himself or from another person to the patient. Generally, there are 2 types of transplants. The process of returning one’s own stem cells is called ‘autologous’, while the process of donating stem cells from someone else is called ‘allogeneic’ transplantation. The allogeneic transplant can be performed by an identical (sigeneic) twin or by a perfectly matched mother, father, brother or sister or non-consensual person. In recent years, transplants from semi-compatible family members have also been performed. These transplants from semi-compatible parents, siblings, or children are called haploidentical transplants. When new stem cells enter the body, they travel from the blood to the bone marrow. Over time, they multiply and start producing new healthy blood cells. While it usually takes a few weeks for the number of blood cells in the body to return to normal, for some people it may take longer.