The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located just below the protrusion of cartilage at the front of the neck region and which secretes vital hormones for the body. If it is a thyroid nodule; They are lumps or abnormal masses of different structures and sizes that occur within the thyroid tissue. Although it is a common problem, what is important is the diagnosis and treatment of the nodules, which can be cancerous.
Fine needle aspiration biopsy from the lump is the most important diagnostic procedure in thyroid treatment. Four possibilities that may arise as a result of the biopsy; It is sorted into 4 groups as good, doubtful, bad or unidentified. If the lump is benign, no surgery is needed. However, bad or suspicious nodules are in the group that should be operated on.
In the unidentified group, if an unidentified structure is seen three times in a row on biopsies, they are also operated on. Thyroid surgery begins with an incision of approximately 4 to 5 cm in the anterior region of the neck. First, the thin muscles just under the skin are opened to reach the thyroid gland. Since the thyroid gland has two wings like a butterfly, first one wing and then the other wing separates from the trachea. In the meantime, it is necessary not to damage the nerves that pass right behind the thyroid and go to the vocal cords, and also not to remove the rice-sized parathyroid glands located just behind the thyroid. The surgery takes about two hours and the patient is often discharged after an overnight stay in the hospital.
The most important risks that can be encountered during thyroid surgery are bleeding, damage to the nerve that stimulates the vocal cords that causes permanent changes in the voice and damage to the parathyroid glands by regulating the level of calcium in our body, which causes hypoparathyroidism.
Thyroid surgery must be performed by experienced surgeons who have received special training in this regard. Complication rates are lower after surgery performed by surgeons who frequently perform thyroid surgery.